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Aba'ah - عباءة
Cloak like, woolen wrap.


Abu Bakr - أبو بكر
Prophet Muhammad's best companion and first Muslim Caliph.


Adhan - أذان
An Islamic way of calling Muslims to the five obligatory Prayers. The Adhan is announced daily from the Mosques.


Al-Hajar Al-Aswad - الحجر الأسود
A stone from heaven. It is built into the south-east corner of the Ka'bah at a height of 4ft. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) placed it into the wall during the reconstruction. He kissed the black stone during his Farewell Hajj - touching and kissing the stone is not part of the Hajj but is considered sunnah.


Al-Masjid Al-Haram - المسجد الحرام
Known as Al-Haram Al-Sharif, the most important Mosque in Islam. The mosque containing the "House of Allah" situated in the valley of Makkah. Formerly known as "Bakkah" in the Bible and in the Quran.


 
Al-Masjid An-Nabawi - المسجد النبوي
The Prophet's Mosque is the second most important mosque in Islam, situated in Medina, to the north side of Mecca. It stands on the site of a mosque built by the Prophet Muhammad himself next to his house.


 
Aqidah - عقيدة
The belief system that is based upon a firm conviction in all the fundamentals of faith and of the Oneness of Allah, i.e. creed. It is derived from the verb Aqada meaning to firmly bind and knot. Whatsoever settles in the heart in a firm and definitive manner is said to be that person's Aqidah. In the technical sense it refers to the definitive faith and certain ruling that is not open to any doubt. It is called Aqidah because the person binds his heart upon it.


Ar-Rukn Al-Yamani - الركن اليماني
The corner of the Ka'bah which faces Yemen.


Arafat - عرفات
A pilgrimage site, Standing on 'Arafah on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah and staying there from mid-day to sunset is the essence of the Hajj.


Asr - عصر
One of the five daily prayers performed between afternoon and sunset.


Ayah - آية
In the Quran the word has been used in four different senses: (1) sign or indication; (2) the phenomena of the universe (called ayat of God for the reality to which the phenomena point is hidden behind the veil of appearances); (3) miracles performed by the Prophets; and (4) individual units (i.e. verses) of the Book of God.


Baqi' - بقيع
A cemetery in Madinah. Many of the companions and family members of the Prophet (peace be upon him) are buried there.


Bid'ah - بدعة
Blameworthy innovations and misguidance in deen.


Burqa' - برقع
A face veil like a Niqab.


Dalil - دليل
To guide to something; to give direction toward something.


Deen - دين
Way of life (often translated as "religion").


Dhuhr - ظهر
One of the five daily prayers performed between midday and afternoon.


Dhul-Hijjah - ذو الحجة
The 12th month of the lunar Islamic calendar. The month in which the great pilgrimage to Makkah takes place.


Dhul-Qa'dah - ذو القعدة
The 11th month of the lunar Islamic calendar. One of the months of Hajj.


 
Du'a - دعاء
Prayer; supplication.


Eid - عيد
Celebration for Muslims.


Eid Al-Adha - عيد الأضحى
A four-day festival marking the end of the Hajj on the10th day. Hajj pilgrims celebrate at Mina, while Muslims all over the world celebrate in their own communities. Literally means "the feast of the sacrifice." This feast commemorates Prophet Ibrahim's obedience to Allah by being prepared to sacrifice his only son Isma'il, peace be on both of them. See [Noble Quran 37:100-103].


Eid Al-Fitr - عيد الفطر
Three three-day festival marking the end of Ramadan.


Fajr - فجر
First of the five daily prayers for Muslims, occurs just before sunrise.


 
Fiqh - فقه
Understanding; comprehension; Knowledge; and jurisprudence in Islam. A jurist is called a Faqih who is an expert in matters of Islamic legal matters. A Faqih is to pass verdicts within the rules of the Islamic Law namely Shari'ah.


Fitnah - فتنة
Intense calamity or tribulation.


Five Pillars of Islam - أركان الاسلام الخمس
Islam is based upon five cornerstones of faith and worship. They are Shahadah (expression of faith), Salah (Prayer), Zakah (Giving of Alms), Siyam (Fasting) and Hajj (Pilgrimage).


Ghusl - غسل
Total washing of the body as a shower or bath with certain steps. A person may not perform Salah (Prayer) or recite or touch the Quran until he performs Ghusl (taking a bath) or Tayammum.


Hadith - حديث
Sayings or traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).


Hadith Qudsi - حديث قدسي
Sayings or traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) from Allah Himself, but in Muhammad's choice of words.


Hady - هدي
Animal sacrifice: It is an animal, free of defects, offered at the Sacred House as a devotion to the Almighty Allah. It can be a camel, cow, or sheep. It is permissible for the one who offers sacrifice to eat one-third, give the second third as a present, and the rest as charity.


Hafith Al-Quran - حافظ القرآن
A person who memorizes the entire Quran.


Hajar - هاجر
The second of the Prophet Abraham's wives and mother of his first son Ishmael.


Hajj - حج
The Fifth Pillar of Islam and the annual pilgrimage to Mecca to be performed by able Muslims at least once in their lifetime.


Hajj Mabrur - حج مبرور
An accepted Hajj in which Allah is not disobeyed during or after.


Halal - حلال
Permissible (not forbidden).


Hamzah - حمزة
One of the Prophet's uncles and a martyr during the battle of Uhud.


Hanafi - حنفي
The Hanafi school is the oldest of the four Madhhabs (schools of thought) or Fiqh (jurisprudence) within Sunni Islam. The Hanafi madhhab is named after its founder, Abu Hanifa an-Nu'man bin Thabit (699 - 767).


Hanbali - حنبلي
Hanbali is one of the four Madhhabs (schools of thought) or Fiqh (jurisprudence) within Sunni Islam. It is also a school of Aqidah (creed) in Sunni Islam, also referred to as the Athari (textualist) school.


 
Haraam - حرام
Forbidden (not permitted).


Haram - حرم
Sanctuary.


Hayd - حيض
Menstruation.


Hijaz - حجاز
A region in south-western Saudi Arabia regarded as the holy land of the Muslims. Contains the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina and other places associated with the life of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).


 
Hijrah - هجرة
Migration. The Hijrah refers to the Prophet's migration from Mecca to Madinah (622 C.E.), and marks the beginning of the Muslim lunar calendar. The word hijrah means to leave a place to seek sanctuary or freedom from persecution or freedom of religion or any other purpose. Hijrah can also mean to leave a bad way of life for a good or more righteous way.


Hujjaj - حجاج
Pilgrims.


Ibadah - عبادة
Worship (noun).


Idhteba' - اضطباع
Placing the middle of the Rida' under the right arm and the ends of it over the left shoulder during Tawaf.


Ifrad - إفراد
Isolated form of Hajj.


Ihram - إحرام
The state of spiritual and physical purification in which Muslim pilgrims begin 'Umrah or Hajj. Pilgrims must wear simple ihram dress and abstain from prohibited acts including cutting/shaving hair, violent disputes, sexual intercourse, and marriage proposals.


Ijma' - إجماع
(Consensus or agreement) of any generation of scholars on a certain religious issue is binding upon the following generations. The Prophet has related in various traditions that the scholars from among his Ummah (community) will never be on a consensus that contains misguidance or error. Allah, the exalted, protects them from this. Because they were the closest generation to the Prophet, the companions were the most qualified to arrive at a ijmaa' (consensus).


Imam - إمام
Leader (as in the leader of the prayers).


 
Iman - إيمان
Belief; faith.


Iqamah - إقامة
A call made to establish the prayers.


Isha' - عشاء
One of the five daily prayers performed between night and midnight.


Islam - إسلام
Means to 'Surrender to Almighty Allah, submission to His Will, Obey His commandments, Sincere Worship Only for Him'. An Abrahamic faith, Islam is the religion of the Muslims and a complete way of life.


Isma'il - إسماعيل
Ishmael: First son of Abraham and Hajar. Ishmael helped his father build the Ka'bah.


Izar - إزار
Lower cloth of Ihram.


Jahiliyah - جاهلية
The time of ignorance before Islam was realized. Describes polytheistic religions.


Jamarat - جمرات
The three stone pillars at which pilgrims cast pebbles during the Hajj. The three stone pillars are Jamarat al-Aqaba (biggest), Jamarat al-Wusta and Jamarat al-Sughra (smallest).


Jamrat Al-'Aqabah - جمرة العقبة
Biggest of the 3 stone pillars at which pilgrims cast pebbles during the Hajj. The other 2 stone pillars are Jamarat al-Wusta (middle) and Jamarat al-Sughra (smallest).


Janabah - جنابة
The state of a person after sexual discharge, whether intentional or otherwise.


Jannah - جنة
Paradise.


Jilbab - جلباب
(pl. jalabib) A long, flowing, baggy garment worn by some to fulfill the mandates of sartorial hijab.


Ka'bah - كعبة
The square stone building in the Great Mosque in Mecca, towards which all Muslims face in prayer.


Khutbah - خطبة
Sermon. There are various types of sermons: (1) Khutbatul Jum'ah (the Friday Sermon). This is given immediately before the Jum'ah Salah (Friday Prayer); (2) Khutbatul Eid (the Eid Sermon) This is given immediately after the prayer of the two Eids; (3) Khutbatul Nikah (the marriage sermon). This is given during the marriage ceremony.


Kiswah - كسوة
A brocaded black apparel of gold and silver threaded silk and cotton draped over the Ka'bah. It is changed annually.


Last Sermon - خطبة الوداع
Prophet Muhammad's last sermon during his last Hajj delivered on Mount Arafat in 10 AH. A pivotal address outlining the religious, social and political foundations of Islam.


Maghrib - مغرب
One of the five daily prayers performed between sunset and night.


Mahram - محرم
A man whom a woman may never marry because of a close blood relationship e.g. father, son, brother, uncle.


Makruh - مكروه
Means "detested", though not Haram (forbidden); something that is disliked or offensive. There is no sin and no punishment if a person commits the Makruh, but it is blameworthy.


Maliki - مالكي
The Maliki madhab is one of the four Madhhabs (schools of thought) or Fiqh (jurisprudence) within Sunni Islam. It is the third-largest of the four schools, mostly followed in North Africa and West Africa.


Manasik - مناسك
Rites.


Maqam Ibrahim - مقام إبراهيم
Station of Abraham, a small glass station near the Ka'bah door marking the spot of a legendary boulder where the Prophet Abraham is said to have stood when building the Ka'bah.


Marwah - مروة
One of two hills in Mecca between which Hajar ran in search of water for her son. Marwah is the hill on which the Sa'i ends.


Mas'a - مسعى
The stretch between Safa and Marwah.


Masha'ir - مشاعر
Ceremonial shrines. Sha`a'ir Allah refer to all those rites which, in opposition to polytheism and outright disbelief and atheism, are the characteristic symbols of exclusive devotion to God.


Mecca - مكة
Birthplace of Islam and birthplace of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in 570CE. Mecca is the capital of the Hijaz and located in Western Saudi Arabia.


Medina - مدينة
It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Also transliterated into English as Madinah; officially (Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah) is a city in the Hijaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al-Madinah Province.


Mina - منى
East of Mecca, the Hajj passes through this village on its way to and from Arafat.


Miqat - ميقات
The townships which mark the sacred territory where pilgrims undergo the spiritual cleansing for the donning of ihram. The Miqat townships around the Ka'bah are: Al-Juhfah in the North-West, Dhul-Hulaifah in the North, Dhatu 'Irq in the North East, Qarn Al-Manazil in the East and Yalamlam in the South East.


Mount of Mercy - جبل الرحمة
In Arabic Jabalur-Rahmah.


Mufrid - مُفرد
A pilgrim performing Hajj Ifrad (Isolated Hajj).


Muhammad - محمد
The final Prophet of Islam.


 
Muharram - محرّم
The 1st month of the lunar Islamic calendar. Muharram is derived from the Arabic word haram which literally means 'made forbidden'. In the old Arab days, it was forbidden to fight in this month. Muharram is one of the four holiest months in Islam (the other three are Dhul-Hijjah, Dhul-Qa'dah, Rajab).


Muhrim - مُحرِم
A person in Ihram.


Mutamatti' - متمتع
A pilgrim performing Hajj Tamattu' (enjoyable Hajj).


Mutawwif - مطوف
A professional Hajj guide who steers the pilgrim through the course, rites and prayers of the Hajj.


Muzdalifah - مزدلفة
A small town where pilgrims camp overnight on the 10th day en route from Arafat back to Mina.


Nahr - نحر
Act of slaughtering the animal sacrifice offered in Hajj by a vertical movement of the spear to the lower part of the throat.


Namira - نمرة
Mosque in Mina.


Nifas - نفاس
Lying-in.


Niqab - نقاب
A face veil revealing the eyes through slashes.


Niyah - نية
The Intention. When a person undertakes a pilgrimage, he/she has to declare a statement of intent.


Qarin - قارن
A pilgrim performing Hajj Qiran (Accompanied Hajj).


Qiblah - قبلة
The direction Muslims face to pray towards the Ka'bah in Mecca.


Qiran - قِران
Accompanied Hajj.


Qiyas - قياس
Analogy - foundation of legal reasoning and thus Fiqh.


Quba' - قباء
A mosque in Medina, used to be on the outskirts.


Quran - قرآن
The sacred Words of Allah to the Muslims revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) by the Angel Gabriel (Jibril) over 23 years.


Quraysh - قريش
At time of Prophet Muhammad's birth, the Quraysh tribe of merchants and traders controlled Mecca including the Ka'bah. Initially resisted Prophet Muhammad's Islam but eventually submitted after the Prophet (peace be upon him) took Mecca in 630CE.


 
Rafath - رفث
Sexual intercourse or what leads to it from sayings or actions.


Rak'ah - ركعة
(pl. raka'at) Represents a unit of the Prayer and consists of bending the torso from an upright position followed by two prostrations.


Raka'at - ركعات
A position of prayer consisting of recitation, bowing, kneeling and prostration.


Ramadan - رمضان
The Muslim's month of fasting and the 9th month of the lunar Islamic calendar. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) received the divine revelations during Ramadan.


Ramal - رمل
Speeding up one's pace with small steps during the first three circuits of Tawaf.


Ramy - رمي
The Stoning.


Rida' - رداء
The upper cloth of Ihram.


Sa'i - سعي
The running rite which symbolizes Hajar's desperate search for water for her son in the desert with seven ritual laps between the hills of Safa and Marwah.


Sadaqah - صدقة
Anything given away in charity for the pleasure of Allah.


Safa - صفا
One of two hills in Mecca between which Hajar ran in search of water for her son. The hill on which the pilgrim begins the Sa'i from.


 
Sahabah - صحابة
Companions of prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).


Salah - صلاة
The second pillar of Islam - the ritualistic prayers a Muslim must perform five times a day.


Sarah - سارة
Abraham's first wife and mother of his second son Isaac.


Sawm - صوم
The fourth pillar of Islam - fasting during the month of Ramadan.


Shafi'i - شافعي
The Shafi'i madhab is one of the four Madhhabs (schools of thought) or Fiqh (jurisprudence) within Sunni Islam. The Shafi'i school is named after its founder, Imam Ash-Shafi'i.


Shahadah - شهادة
First pillar of Islam and declaration of faith that makes one a Muslim: 'There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is his messenger'.


Shari'ah - شريعة
Islamic Law.


Shawwal - شوال
The 10th month on the lunar Islamic calendar, and is one of the hajj months. The first day of Shawwal is Eid Al-Fitr.


Sunnah - سنة
The teachings, example and practice of the way of life of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) which Muslims are meant to follow.


Surah - سورة
Chapter from the Quran.


Tafsir - تفسير
A commentary, usually referring to the commentary of the Holy Quran.


 
Taharah - طهارة
Cleanliness; ritual purity. Taharah means the removal of Al-hadath and An-najasah (physical impurity) that nullify one's state of purity.


 
Tahlil - تهليل
Saying "La ilaha illa Allah" (There is no God but Allah).


 
Tahmid - تحميد
Saying "al-Hamdu li-llah" (Praise be to Allah).


Takbir - تكبير
Saying "Allahu Akbar" (Allah is Greatest).


Talbiyah - تلبية
The prayer which responds to Allah's call for Hajj. Begins with the word 'Labbayk' - 'Here I am present'.


Tamattu - تمتع
Enjoyable form of Hajj.


Taqwa - تقوى
Fearing Allah as He should be feared. A major sign of being a faithful Muslim. See Quran, Ali 'Imran (3:102-103), Al-Hashr (59:18-19).


 
Tarwiyah - تروية
The eighth of Dhul-Hijjah.


Tashriq - تشريق
This term signifies four days of the month of Dhul-Hijjah, viz. 10th through 13th.


Tawaf - طواف
(The rite of) Circling of the Holy Ka'bah. Tawaf is done in sets of seven circuits.


Tawaf Al-lfadah - طواف الإفاضة
Tawaf for Hajj, is performed when coming to Mecca from Mina after Arafat day.


Tawaf Al-Wada' - طواف الوداع
Farewell Tawaf. Undertaken before departing from Mecca.


 
Tawbah - توبة
Repentance.


Tawhid - توحيد
Oneness of God. The Divine Unity. Allah is One in His Essence and His Attributes and His Acts. The centermost concept of Islam.


 
Tayammum - تيمم
As an Islamic legal term, it refers to wiping one's hands and face with clean earth as a substitution for ablution when water cannot be obtained. Tayammum literally means 'to intend to do a thing'.


Uhud - أحد
The name of a mountain in Medina and the site of the battle by this name.


Umar - عمر
The second Muslim Caliph and first Prince of the believers.


Ummah - أمة
Global Muslim community; nation. The Quran refers to Muslims as the best Ummah raised for the benefit of all mankind (3:110). At another place, (2:143), it calls them 'the middle nation' (Umma Wasat) a unique characteristic of the Islamic community which has been asked to maintain equitable balance between extremes, pursue the path of moderation and establish the middle way. Such a community of Muslims will be a model for the whole world to emulate.


Umrah - عمرة
An individual pilgrimage performed only at Mecca anytime of the year outside the Hajj which includes sacred rites such as Ihram, Tawaf and Sa'i. Also called (The Minor or Lesser Pilgrimage).


Uthman - عثمان
The third Muslim Caliph and second Prince of the believers.


 
Wajib - واجب
Obligatory; necessary; mandatory.


Wasiyah - وصية
An Islamic will drawn up before departure for the Hajj.


Wudu' - وضوء
The act of performing ablution before prayer.


Wuquf - وقوف
The noon to sunset Rite of Standing at Arafat symbolizing the climax of the Hajj.


Zakah - زكاة
Zakah (Purifying Alms) literally means purification, whence it is used to express a portion of property bestowed in alms, as a means of purifying the person concerned and the remainder of his property. It is among the five pillars of Islam and refers to the mandatory amount that a Muslim must pay out of his property.


ZamZam - زمزم
The sacred well of water which sprang up beneath the Prophet Ishmael during Hajar's search for water. Located inside Masjid-ul-Haram in Mecca.



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